Sunday, 18 July 2010
Vitamin A is a very good vitamin for healthy skin. It helps strengthen the skin and repair tissues. It can be taken in foods, as a supplement or as a topical cream. Vitamin A can help prevent dry skin and acne. It can also be used to treat wrinkles.
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that can help prevent free radical damage to the skin. Vitamin E is a good vitamin to take when your skin is suffering some damage from the sun or other factors.
Vitamin C helps with healing wounds and other damage to the skin. There is some evidence to suggest it may rejuvenate the skin. Vitamin C will also help the immune system fight off illnesses.
Vitamin D is an antioxidant that may play a role in skin pigmentation.
Vitamin B helps keep your skin tone healthy. It is also a good vitamin for relieving stress, and so it may prevent some of the skin problems (like eczema) that can be caused by stress. There are a number of different vitamins in the vitamin B group.
Vitamin B1 is an antioxidant that helps rid the body of toxins. It can also assist circulation.
Vitamin B2 helps keep the skin healthy. It can also help prevent acne.
Vitamin B3 improves circulation.
Vitamin B5 helps reduce stress.
Vitamin B6 helps keep the immune system healthy.
Zinc helps the skin's natural healing process. It is good in preventing the over-production of sebum, which will also help clear up acne. Zinc also helps the immune system
Friday, 30 April 2010
Cashew is a bean shaped nut that grows on a tropical evergreen tree. The casher tree is related to poison ivy and the shell of the cashew nuts contains an irritating poison. People who touch the shell sometimes develop skin rashes/blisters; this is the reason why cashew nuts are always sold shelled and dried. Even the so-called "raw" cashews have actually been roasted to remove all the poison/toxic resin from the nuts. Cashew nuts has a high content of monounsaturated fats, copper and magnesium
Nutritional Content: Per 100 gms.
• Thiamine: .63 mg.
• Riboflavin: .19 mg.
• Niacin: 2.1 mg.
• Calcium: 46 mg.
• Phosphorus: 428 mg.
• Fat: 48.2 gm.
• Carbohydrates: 27 gm.
• Protein: 18.5 gm.
• Calories: 578
• Good body builder
• Cashew has no cholesterol.
• Cashew helps maintain healthy gums and teeth.
• Cashew is an energizing food.
• Cashew contains healthy monounsaturated fat that promotes good cardiovascular health, because monounsaturated fats reduce high triglyceride levels which are associated with increased risk for heart disease.
• Cashew is rich in antioxidants that help in the elimination of free radicals that may cause some cancer.
• Magnesium works with calcium to support healthy muscles and bones in the body. It also helps promote normal sleep patterns in menopausal women.
• Cashew nuts have a high energy density and high amount of dietary fiber, both have been attributed to a beneficial effect on weight management, but only when eaten in moderation
• Cashew's has high copper content is vital in energy production, greater flexibility in blood vessels, bones and joints.
• Cashew nut consumption helps the body utilize iron, eliminate free radicals, develop bone and connective tissue, and produce the skin and hair pigment melanin.
Storage tips: Cashews spoil quickly at room temperature and should be refrigerated. If refrigerated in a tightly sealed container, they will keep for six months or up to a year if frozen.
Sunday, 31 January 2010
Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system.
The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure.
Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone.
The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time .
Milk, yogurt, and cheese are rich sources of calcium and are the major food contributors of this nutrient to people in the United States.
Nondairy sources include vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage, kale, and broccoli.
Most grains do not have high amounts of calcium unless they are fortified; however, they contribute calcium to the diet because they do have small amounts and people consume them frequently.
Foods fortified with calcium include many fruit juices and drinks, tofu, and cereals.
Food Milligrams (mg) per serving Percent DV*
Yogurt, plain, low fat, 8 ounces 415 42
Sardines, canned in oil, with bones, 3 ounces 324 32
Cheddar cheese, 1.5 ounces 306 31
Milk, nonfat, 8 ounces 302 30
Milk, reduced-fat (2% milk fat), 8 ounces 297 30
Milk, lactose-reduced, 8 ounces** 285-302 29-30
Milk, whole (3.25% milk fat), 8 ounces 291 29
Milk, buttermilk, 8 ounces 285 29
Mozzarella, part skim, 1.5 ounces 275 28
Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 8 ounces 245-384 25-38
Orange juice, calcium-fortified, 6 ounces 200-260 20-26
Tofu, firm, made with calcium sulfate, ½ cup*** 204 20
Salmon, pink, canned, solids with bone, 3 ounces 181 18
Pudding, chocolate, instant, made with 2% milk, ½ cup 153 15
Cottage cheese, 1% milk fat, 1 cup unpacked 138 14
Tofu, soft, made with calcium sulfate, ½ cup*** 138 14
Spinach, cooked, ½ cup 120 12
Ready-to-eat cereal, calcium-fortified, 1 cup 100-1,000 10-100
Instant breakfast drink, various flavors and brands, powder prepared with water, 8 ounces 105-250 10-25
Frozen yogurt, vanilla, soft serve, ½ cup 103 10
Turnip greens, boiled, ½ cup 99 10
Kale, cooked, 1 cup 94 9
Kale, raw, 1 cup 90 9
Ice cream, vanilla, ½ cup 85 8.5
Soy beverage, calcium-fortified, 8 ounces 80-500 8-50
Chinese cabbage, raw, 1 cup 74 7
Tortilla, corn, ready-to-bake/fry, 1 medium 42 4
Tortilla, flour, ready-to-bake/fry, one 6" diameter 37 4
Sour cream, reduced fat, cultured, 2 tablespoons 32 3
Bread, white, 1 ounce 31 3
Broccoli, raw, ½ cup 21 2
Bread, whole-wheat, 1 slice 20 2
Cheese, cream, regular, 1 tablespoon 12 1
** Calcium content varies slightly by fat content; the more fat, the less calcium the food contains.
*** Calcium content is for tofu processed with a calcium salt. Tofu processed with other salts does not provide significant amounts of calcium.
It is recommended to eat 3 cups of foods from the milk group per day.
A cup is equal to 1 cup (8 ounces) of milk.
1 cup of yogurt.
1.5 ounces of natural cheese (such as Cheddar), or 2 ounces of processed cheese (such as American).
A healthy diet as one that:
• Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products:
Many dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt, are rich sources of calcium. Some vegetables provide significant amounts of calcium, as do some fortified cereals and juices.
• Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts.
• Tofu made with calcium salts is a good source of calcium, as are canned sardines and salmon with soft bones.
• Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
Low- and nonfat dairy products provide amounts of calcium that are roughly similar to the amounts in their full-fat versions.
Sunday, 18 October 2009
I do 30 minutes arm exercises daily and use a Motomed for legs, also daily for 39 minutes.
My advice is in possible get one as they are very good.
My diet is very good; I eat a varied diet, with lots of fresh vegetables and fruit, nuts, seeds, everyday.
Lots of fresh Tofu and Tempe from the Asian shop, they make it themselves.
Regular fish, especially fatty fish like herring and mackerel and smoked eel, as well as tins of sardines and anchovy, very occasionally.
Freeh pasta, Richie makes it; he makes lasagne, cannelloni, ravioli, and tagliatelli.
He makes great stews, casseroles and soups and curries and cous cous
We eat no processed food, apart from the occasional tin of sardines or anchovy and jar of roll mops herring all fresh food is bought on the market.
Soya products and some pulses from Asian shop, rice and Asian/Caribbean vegetables/fruit from the Indian shop and soft goat cheese and olives and some fruit and vegetables, if needed from our friendly Turkish shop.
Sometimes when Richie wants a break from making bread he gets bread from an excellent Moroccan baker, who is just up the road.
Richie uses thick coconut cream in place of dairy cream, he makes delicious ice cream and custards.
He also uses fresh herbs in place of dried herbs where possible and available, he grows his own, and has indoor thyme on the kitchen windowsill all year around.
Bread is made with a mixture of whole wheat and brown and white flour plus oats and linseed, linseed is also added to cooked food.
Love avocados and mangos and bananas which we have regularly, daily in the summer.
Think that my/our daily vitamin and mineral intake is very good.
Sunday, 28 June 2009
New York State
Department of Health
Vitamin D and Healthy Bones
Vitamin D is essential for the absorption and use of calcium in our bodies.
It promotes the growth and maintenance of strong bones.
How can I get enough vitamin D.
Vitamin D has been referred to as "the sunshine vitamin." Your body can make vitamin D from casual sun exposure of short duration (as little as 5 to 15 minutes of sunshine per day, two to three times per week on the face and hands).
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stored in your body fat. In general, adults and children living in New York State can get enough casual sun exposure from March to October to store a significant amount of vitamin D.
It will later be released for the body's use during the winter months. However, the use of sunscreen and/or sun-protective clothing, cloudy northern climate, and window glass block your body's ability to make vitamin D from sun exposure.
It is important to know that your body is not able to overdose on vitamin D from the sun, but your skin can suffer damaging effects from too much sun. Therefore, to prevent sunburn and reduce the risk of skin cancer, it is important to limit sun exposure to brief periods (5 to 15 minutes) and then apply sunscreeen (SPF of 15 or higher).
How much vitamin D do I need?
It is difficult to know how much vitamin D your body makes from sunlight. Scientists have established Adequate Intakes (AI) for vitamin D to help you know the amount of vitamin D needed from dietary and/or supplemental sources regardless of your sunlight exposure and body stores.
The AI may overestimate your true biological need if you are able to obtain vitamin D from the sun. However, the AI is a safe level for individuals even if adequate vitamin D is already obtained from the sun.
Adequate Intakes of Vitamin D
Age (years) Vitamin D (IU/day)*
Birth to age 50 200
71 and older 600
*IU = international units/day.
Dietary Reference Intakes, National Academy of Sciences, 1997
For individuals with certain conditions, a physician may recommend slightly more vitamin D than indicated in the table above. For example, some scientists have reported that homebound individuals or people over age 65 achieve optimal bone health benefits when consuming approximately 800 IU of vitamin D daily. Since vitamin D can be stored in your body, too much can be harmful. It is important to follow your medical professional's advice and not to exceed 2000 IU of vitamin D from diet and/or supplements without a prescription.
What foods and supplements contain vitamin D?
There are only a few naturally occurring food sources of vitamin D, most of which are high in fat. These include fatty fish and eggs. Some foods are fortified with vitamin D. These include cow's milk, some soymilk and rice milk, some breakfast cereals and some breakfast bars. Vitamin D can also be obtained from multivitamins (most contain 400 IU), in combination with some calcium supplements, or alone as a separate vitamin D supplement.
Special considerations about vitamin D.
Healthy children and adults can usually get enough vitamin D from sunlight, food and/or multivitamins. Adults, who carefully protect their skin with sunscreen and/or wear protective clothing, do not consume milk or other vitamin D rich foods and do not take a multivitamin should speak to their healthcare provider about how to get enough vitamin D. Homebound individuals with little sun exposure should discuss their risk of vitamin D deficiency with their healthcare provider and try to get enough vitamin D from diet and/or supplements. Senior adults over age 70 have the greatest need for vitamin D and are less able to make vitamin D from sunlight.
Seniors need to be sure to consume enough vitamin D. It is difficult for many seniors to get enough vitamin D from foods and therefore a supplement may be needed. There is some evidence that adequate calcium and vitamin D intake in seniors may even reduce the risk for fracture.
Sources of vitamin D.
The table lists the average vitamin D content for sources of vitamin D that have been measured. Vitamin D content is stated in international units (IU). The list is limited because there is currently little information available about the vitamin D content of other foods.
There are natural sources of vitamin D that also tend to be high in fat. In addition, there are fortified foods (food with vitamin D added) and supplements that contain vitamin D. The amount of vitamin D that is found in food varies depending on the feed given to animal sources of vitamin D, the brand purchased, as well as the amount of vitamin D added to fortified foods.
For example, milk is fortified with 100 IU of vitamin D per 8-ounce cup. On the other hand, most dairy products including yogurts and cheeses are not made with fortified milk so they are not good sources of vitamin D. Recently, a few dairy products and other foods have been manufactured with vitamin D added. It is important to read food labels.
Natural Sources IU Vitamin D/Serving
Herring 1383 per 3 ounces
Herring, pickled 578 per 3 ounces
Salmon, pink, canned 530 per 3 ounces
Halibut 510 per 3 ounces
Cod liver oil* 450 per teaspoon
Catfish 425 per 3 ounces
Mackerel, Atlantic 306 per 3 ounces
Oyster 272 per 3 ounces
Shitake mushrooms, dried 249 per 4
Sardines, pacific, canned in tomato sauce 213 per 1/2 cup or 182 per sardine
Sardines, atlantic, canned in oil 203 per 1/2 cup or 33 per sardine
Tuna, light meat, canned in oil 200 per 3 ounces
Shrimp 129 per 3 ounces
Egg, cooked 26 per whole egg 25 per yolk
Fortified Sources IU Vitamin D/Serving
Tofu, fortified 120 per 1/5 block
Cow's milk, all types 100 per 8 ounces
Milk, canned evaporated 102 per 4 ounces
Rice milk, fortified 100 per 8 ounces
Soy milk, fortified 100 per 8 ounces
Orange juice, fortified 100 per 8 ounces
Pudding, made with fortified milk 50 per 1/2 cup
Cereal, fortified 40 per serving
Yogurt, fortified (Danimals) 40 per 1/2 cup
Supplemental Sources IU Vitamin D/Dose
Most multivitamins** Usually 400 IU
Calcium with Vitamin D Amount varies
Vitamin D only Amount varies
* High in retinol
** May be high in retinol
USDA National Nutrient Data Base: http://www.nal.usda.gov
It's sensible to avoid sources of vitamin D that are high in retinol.
Vitamin D and vitamin A are both fat-soluble and may be present in the same foods or supplements. Cod liver oil, for example, contains high amounts of both vitamin D and a type of vitamin A called retinol.
Recent studies have found that postmenopausal women who consumed very high intakes of retinol (from sources such as cod liver oil, liver, certain multivitamins or vitamin A supplements) appeared to have an increased risk for hip fractures.
However, there was no association between high intakes of another type of vitamin A, called beta-carotene and the risk of hip fracture. Beta-carotene is found in darkly colored orange and green fruits and vegetables. Although further investigation is needed to study the relationship between retinol and fracture risk, it is sensible to avoid consuming too much retinol.
You can get your adequate intake (AI) of vitamin D by selecting foods and supplements that are lower in retinol. It is important to note that retinol may also be listed on the label of fortified foods or supplements as vitamin A acetate or vitamin A palmitate. Multivitamins may be a major source of retinol so it is important to check the label and choose those with more beta-carotene and less retinol.
Even though fortified foods may contain vitamin A from retinol sources, the small amounts that they contain are generally not a concern. It is important and easy to get enough vitamin A from by eating generous servings of darkly-colored orange and green fruits and vegetables each day.
How do you read a food label for vitamin D content?
1. It is important to know that on food labels, 100% Daily Value (%DV) for vitamin D is 400 IU per day.
2. Read the % DV for vitamin D per serving. For example, 1 serving (8 ounces) milk contains 25% vitamin D.
3. Calculate vitamin D content (IU per serving) For example, 25% vitamin D = 25% of 400 IU = 100 IU per serving.
100% JUICE Fortified with Calcium & Vitamin D
Serving Size 8 fl oz (240mL)
Servings per Container 12 There are about 12 - 8 ounce servings in this container.
Amount Per Serving
Calories 110 Calories from Fat 0
% Daily Value Percent Daily Values are based on the recommendations for an adult male consuming a 2,000 calorie diet.
Total Fat 0g 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Potassium 450mg 13%
Total Carbohydrates 26g 9%
Vitamin C 130% Calcium 35%
Thiamin 10% Riboflavin 4%
Niacin 4% Vitamin B6 6%
Folate 15% Magnesium 6%
Vitamin D 25% One 8 oz serving of this juice contains 25% Daily Value for Vitamin D = 100 IU
(c) Helen Hayes Hospital/NYS Department of Health - 11/03
Thursday, 7 May 2009
High avocado intake has been shown to have an effect on blood serum cholesterol levels. Specifically, after a seven day diet rich in avocados, hypercholesterolemia patients showed a 17% decrease in total serum cholesterol levels. These subjects also showed a 22% decrease in both LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglyceride levels and 11% increase in HDL (good cholesterol) levels.
Avocado, raw (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 160 kcal 670 kJ
- Sugars 0.66 g
- Dietary fiber 6.7 g
- saturated 2.13 g
- monounsaturated 9.80 g
- polyunsaturated 1.82 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.067 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.130 mg
Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.738 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.389 mg
Vitamin B6 0.257 mg
Folate (Vit. B9) 81 μg
Vitamin C 10 mg
Calcium 12 mg
Iron 0.55 mg
Magnesium 29 mg
Phosphorus 52 mg
Potassium 485 mg
Zinc 0.64 mg
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
The fruit of horticultural cultivars ranges from more or less round to egg- or pear-shaped, typically the size of a temperate-zone pear or larger, on the outside bright green to green-brown (or almost black) in color. The fruit has a markedly higher fat content than most other fruit, mostly monounsaturated fat, and as such serves as an important staple in the diet of various groups where access to other fatty foods (high-fat meats and fish, dairy, etc) is limited. A ripe avocado will yield to a gentle pressure when held in the palm of the hand and squeezed. The flesh is typically greenish yellow to golden yellow when ripe. The flesh enzymatic browning and turns brown quickly after exposure to air. To prevent this, lime or lemon juice can be added to avocados after they are peeled.
The avocado is very popular in vegetarian cuisine, making an excellent substitute for meats in sandwiches and salads because of its high fat content. The fruit is not sweet, but fatty, distinctly yet subtly flavored, and of smooth, almost creamy texture. It is used as the base for the Mexican dip known as guacamole, as well as a filling for several kinds of sushi, including California rolls. Avocado is popular in chicken dishes and as a spread on toast, served with salt and pepper. In Brazil and Vietnam, avocados are frequently used for milk-shakes and occasionally added to ice cream and other desserts. In Brazil, Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia, a dessert drink is made with sugar, milk or water, and pureed avocado. Chocolate syrup is sometimes added. In Australia it is commonly served in sandwiches, often with chicken. In Ghana, it's often eaten alone in sliced bread as a sandwich.
In Mexico and Central America, avocados are served mixed with white rice, in soups, salads, or on the side of chicken and meat. In Peru avocados are consumed with tequeños as mayonnaise, served as a side dish with parrillas, used in salads and sandwiches, or as a whole dish when filled with tuna, shrimps, or chicken. In Chile is used as a puree in chicken, hamburgers and hot dogs, and in slices for celery or lettuce salads. The Chilean version of caesar salad contains large slices of mature avocado. In Kenya, the avocado is often eaten as a fruit, and is eaten alone, or mixed with other fruits in a fruit salad, or as part of a vegetable salad.
The fruit was the basis for the original alcoholic drink Advocaat, made by the Dutch population of Suriname and Recife, with the name deriving from the same source.
About 75% of an avocado's calories come from fat, most of which is monounsaturated fat. Avocados also have 60% more potassium than bananas. They are rich in B vitamins, as well as vitamin E and vitamin K. They have the highest fiber content of any fruit - including 75% insoluble and 25% soluble fiber.
A fatty triol (fatty alcohol) with one double bond, avocadene (16-heptadecene-1,2,4-triol), is found in avocado.
Wednesday, 22 April 2009
Due to the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those which use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. ATP exists in cells normally as a chelate of ATP and a magnesium ion.
Plants have an additional use for magnesium in that chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins.Magnesium deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by applying Epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or else crushed dolomitic limestone to the soil.
Food sources of magnesium
Magnesium is a vital component of a healthy human diet. Human magnesium deficiency (including conditions which show few overt symptoms) is relatively common, with only 32% of the United States meeting the RDA-DRI, and has been implicated in the development of a number of human illnesses such as asthma, osteoporosis, and ADHD.
Adult human bodies contain about 24 grams of magnesium, with 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1% extracellular. Serum levels are typically 0.7 – 1.0 mmol/L. Serum magnesium levels may appear normal even in cases of underlying intracellular deficiency, although no known mechanism maintains a homeostatic level in the blood other than renal excretion of high blood levels. Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Magnesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, with more absorbed when status is lower. In humans, magnesium appears to facilitate calcium absorption. Low and high protein intake inhibit magnesium absorption, and other factors such as phosphate, phytate, and fat affect absorption. Absorbed dietary magnesium is largely excreted through the urine, although most magnesium "administered orally" is excreted through the feces. Magnesium status may be assessed roughly through serum and erythrocyte Mg concentrations and urinary and fecal excretion, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are likely the most accurate and practical in most people. In these tests, magnesium is injected intravenously; a retention of 20% or more indicates deficiency. Other nutrient deficiencies are identified through biomarkers, but none are established for magnesium.
Spices, nuts, cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, and vegetables (especially green leafy ones) are rich sources of magnesium. Observations of reduced dietary magnesium intake in modern Western countries as compared to earlier generations may be related to food refining and modern fertilizers which contain no magnesium.
There are a number of magnesium dietary supplements available. Magnesium oxide, one of the most common because it has a high magnesium content per weight, has been reported to be the least bioavailable. Magnesium citrate has been reported as more bioavailable than oxide or amino-acid chelate (glycinate) forms.
Excess magnesium in the blood is freely filtered at the kidneys, and for this reason it is difficult to overdose on magnesium from dietary sources alone. With supplements, overdose is possible, however, particularly in people with poor renal function; occasionally, with use of high cathartic doses of magnesium salts, severe hypermagnesemia has been reported to occur even without renal dysfunction. Alcoholism can produce a magnesium deficiency which is easily reversed by oral or parenteral administration, depending on the degree of deficiency.